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God's intrinsic perfection is not increased by creation, but extrinsically He becomes known and praised, or glorified by the creatures He endows with intelligence.
A secondary natural end of man is the attainment of his own beatitude, the complete and hierarchic perfection of his nature by the exercise of its faculties in the order which reason prescribes to the will, and this by the observance of the moral law.
According to the common definition of the School, Man is a rational animal.Though strictly speaking self-contradictory, the phrase expresses in a convenient form the abiding reciprocity of relation between these two "principles of substantial being". In Greek and in modern philosophy, as well as during the Patristic and Scholastic periods, another celebrated theory laid claim to pre-eminence. It is in a non-natural state of union, and longs to be freed from its bodily prison (cf. Plato has recourse to a theory of a triple soul to explain the union—a theory that would seem to make personality altogether impossible (see MATTER). Augustine, following him (except as to the triple-soul theory) makes the "body" and " soul " two substances; and man "a rational soul using a mortal and earthly body" (De Moribus, I, xxvii).Man is an individual, a single substance resultant from the determination of matter by a human form. But he is careful to note that by union with the body it constitutes the human being. Augustine's psychological doctrine was current in the Middle Ages up to the time and during the perfecting of the Thomistic synthesis. As further instances of Augustinian influence may be cited Alanus ab Insulis (but the soul is united by a spiritus physicus to the body); Alexander of Hales (union ad modum formæ cum materia ); St.This signifies no more than that, in the system of classification and definition shown in the Arbor Porphyriana , man is a substance, corporeal, living, sentient, and rational.It is a logical definition, having reference to a metaphysical entity.
The origin of man by creation (as opposed to emanative and evolutionistic Pantheism ) is asserted in the Church's dogmas and definitions. brought forth out of nothing the spiritual and corporeal creation, that, is the angelic world and the universe, and afterwards man, forming as it were one composite out of spirit and body"), in the writings of the Fathers and theologians the same account is given. Clement of Alexandria and Origen defend the theory of creation against Stoics and neo-Platonists. Augustine strenuously combats the pagan schools on this point as on that of the nature and immortality of man's soul. So again the "Contra Gentiles ", II (on creatures), especially from xlvi onwards, deals with the subject from a philosophical standpoint — the distinction between the theological and the philosophical treatment having been carefully drawn in chap. Either the individual composite was created ex nihilo, or a created soul became the informing principle of matter already pre-existing in another determination. The matter that is destined to become what we call man's "body" is naturally prepared, by successive transformations, for the reception of the newly created soul as its determinant principle.