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Sedating antihistamines effect is related to

The alkylamines include brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton.) These agents cause relatively little sedation, and are used primarily for treatment of allergic reactions.Promethazine (Phenergan), in contrast, is a phenothiazine, chemically related to the major tranquilizers, and while it is used for treatment of allergies, may also be used as a sedative, the relieve anxiety prior to surgery, as an anti-nauseant, and for control of motion sickness.First generation antihistamines have many drawbacks including side effects of drowsiness and significant anticholinergic side effects that, for example, can cause difficulty urinating or constipation, and are therefore not used very often.The newer antihistamines (second generation) are less likely to cause these side effects. Long-acting antihistamines provide symptom relief for up to 8-12 hours, while shorter acting agents last for up to 4 hours but begin working faster.For example, antihistamines are commonly combined with decongestants (for example, Claritin-D, Zyrtec-D, Allegra-D), a class of medicine that is used to dry up the nasal passages and relieve head congestion.Antihistamines are divided into two categories, first generation or older agents and second generation or newer agents.When used for control of allergic reactions, antihistamines should be taken on a regular schedule, rather than on an as-needed basis, since they have no effect on histamine itself, nor on histamine already bound to the receptor site.

Several of the older drugs, called first-generation antihistamines, bind non-selectively to H receptors in the central nervous system as well as to peripheral receptors, and can produce sedation, inhibition of nausea and vomiting, and reduction of motion sickness.acrivastine, cetirizine) tend not to cause sedation, such as loratadine (Claritin), which recently moved from prescription-only to OTC status, desloratadine (Clarinex), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and fexofenadine (Allegra), were developed to minimize the adverse events observed with the earlier agents while maintaining efficacy.(A second type of antihistamine is used primarily for suppressing acid production in the stomach and treating acid-related diseases such as ulcers of the stomach.Central nervous system reactions include drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, faintness, disturbed coordination, lassitude, confusion, restlessness, excitation, tremor, seizures, headache, insomnia, euphoria, blurred vision, hallucinations, disorientation, disturbing dreams/nightmares, schizophrenic-like reactions, weakness, vertigo, hysteria, nerve pain, and convulsions. Not all apply to every drug, and some reactions may not be drug related.Some of the other adverse effects are chest tightness; wheezing; nasal stuffiness; dry mouth, nose and throat; sore throat; respiratory depression; sneezing; and a burning sensation in the nose.

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systemic, topical or inhaled drugs that antagonize histamine and control allergies, e.g.